IT governance is a set of processes by which organizations align their IT practices with their larger business strategy. As a key part of overall enterprise governance, it ensures efficiency, security and effective resource use, as well as compliance with both internal and external regulations.
IT governance encompasses decision-making processes, such as evaluating, choosing and prioritizing IT investments, and oversight processes, such as implementing and managing IT resources and measuring progress toward business outcomes. Organizations often adopt a preexisting industry framework to determine its approach to these practices, though some choose a hybrid approach or adapt a framework to its specific needs and goals.
The CIO is primarily responsible for IT governance, but the process requires input and assistance from stakeholders as well. Both private and public companies develop IT governance programs, but the scope of a program typically depends on the size of an organization and its budget.